These are areas of thickened skin caused by combination of pressure and friction. They have an extremely hard core. Longstanding or poorly treated corns can sometimes result in nerve endings and blood vessels growing into these areas causing severe pain and discomfort.. The majority of corns can be removed quite simply giving immediate relief and others may require insoles/orthotics to reduce friction over these sites.


This is a larger area of thickened hard skin with no nucleus again, brought about by excessive friction or poorly fitting footwear. Untreated: This can cause fissures and cracks with accompanying pain and discomfort. Treatment is often simple and can be carried with no discomfort.


Cracked skin results from tiny splits that occur in dry, damaged skin. If left untreated, these tears can grow into deeper cracks; also known as fissures. A common area for cracks to appear is the heel as it carries the weight of the body whenever you stand. This could be because of dry skin that has built up. Without regular removal of dry skin and a lack of moisture, cracked heels can become very painful and may lead to infections.


More often than not these occur on the Great toenails, where the nail grows into the side or top corner of the toe. This can be caused by tight hosiery, poor fitting shoes or incorrect nail cutting. In some cases there is no secondary factor other than the nails are excessively curved. This can usually be resolved by cutting away the edge of the nail or if necessary removing part or all or the nail as a permanent solution.


These are caused by a virus (HPV) and generally appear somewhere on the sole of the foot. They can look similar to a corn but have capillaries in them, appearing as dark spots. A choice of treatments are available. This can range from using various chemical agents, through cryotherapy to dry needling.


This condition is caused by fungal spores. It often manifests between the toes as wet, itchy, macerated skin and has a strong odour. On the soles of the feet it can appear as small blisters with dry peeling skin. Itch will still be present.


This condition is also caused by fungal spores but in this case, in the nail. It can cause the nails to turn yellow/brown in colour and often they become crumbly in appearance. The nails can become very thickened and unsightly. There are various topical treatments available. These treatments will most often see more positive results by substantially reducing the thickness of the nail to facilitate the action of the lacquer. In severe cases a course of oral treatment can be prescribed once diagnosis has been made. Often fungal nail infections are misdiagnosed and treated with prescription drugs, where there is uncertainty it is essential to take "nail samples" so they can be sent for analysis.


This can be caused by any number of biomechanical problems. Usually this can be addressed by the provision of prescription insoles.